Topic

Logical System

2013

### Reading

Colin Howson, [1997]Logic with treesChapter 2

### Exercises

Howson [1997] has a number of exercises. Many of them you will be able to do in the Widget below.

Here are a few hints

- You have to use the right (unicode/html) logical symbols. Check Writing symbols
- The symbols in use here are ¬ ∧ ∨ → ↔ ∀ ∃ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ (so copy and paste or drag and drop these). The Howson syntax is that the quantifers do not have brackets around them so a quantified formula might look like ∀x(A(x)→B(x,x)). Notice that the 'arguments' to a predicate have brackets around them, and if the arguments are a list they will be separated by commas. You can use proper subscripts (shown above) on variables (or constants or predicates). For example, ∀x₁(A(x₁)→B(x₁,x₁)).
- When entering from a selection, the software will take a single formula (say, A) or a comma separated list of formulas (say, A,B,C) or a possibly empty comma separated list of formulas followed by ∴ and another formula (say, A,B,C ∴ D). In the last case it will load the negation of the conclusion.
- Just type, cut and paste, or drag and drop, whatever you wish, into the lower text box. Then make a selection and hit the Start button.