Tutorial 11: Sketch of the second part of the course, and symbolizing sentences using predicate logic.

Logical System


Skills to be acquired in this tutorial:

To start learning how to symbolize sentences using predicate logic.

The Tutorial:

To symbolize at predicate logic level, entities like Beryl are symbolized by constant terms which are lower case letters from the beginning of the alphabet ('b' would be fine for Beryl) and properties are symbolized by upper case letters ('W' would be fine for '..is wise'); and the two are put together by writing the property first followed by the individual it applies to. The result, using the conventions mentioned here, is

Beryl is wise

would be symbolized by



Exercises to accompany Predicate Tutorial 1

It is usual to analyse an argument using only sentential logic or only predicate logic-- you do not mix up the two levels on one argument. We now move on to predicate logic...

Exercise 1 (of 4):

(*Note that English grammar is a context sensitive grammar and this means that no computer program can deal with it correctly in its entirety. This program makes simplifications and trims English down to a basic core 'near-English' which a computer can manage. For example, one simplification is not paying a lot of attention to having verbs agree properly with their subjects-- for the computer we write 'John goes' and 'John and Jill goes'. No doubt you will seized with a warm and humourous feeling when reading some of these sentences (all students of logic experience this at some time or another). The point of it is to convey how grammatical structure transforms into logical structure and the intermediate near-English helps in this . *)

Exercise 2 (of 4):

Help Video:

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Exercise 3 (of 4):

Exercise 4 (of 4):