# symbolization

## Symbolization Review

11/30/06

[The core of this is from Leblanc and Wisdom [1972] p.117 and f.]

### Symbolization using the Universal Quantifier (of non relational English)

## Tutorial 22: Symbolizing Relations

2013

## Tutorial 22 Symbolizing Relations.

### The Tutorial

Thus far we have considered only 'monadic' predicates-- our atomic formulas consist of a predicate followed by only one term-- for example, Fx. But in English we regularly encounter dyadic predicates or relations. For example, 'Arthur is taller than Bert' cannot be symbolized with the tools we have used so far; what is needed is a relation to represent '...is taller than ...' Txy, say, and then the proposition would be symbolized Tab.

## Tutorial 16: Symbolization using the quantifiers

## Tutorial 16 Symbolization using the quantifiers.

2013

### Skill to be acquired in this tutorial:

To learn how to use the Universal and Existential Quantifiers in symbolizing propositions.

### Reading

Bergmann[2008] The Logic Book Sections 7.4

## Tutorial 12: Symbolizing sentences using predicate logic (continued)

2013

In predicate logic, many different styles of expression in English get cast into the same 'property-is-had-by-entity' form. For example,

## Tutorial 11: Sketch of the second part of the course, and symbolizing sentences using predicate logic.

2013

### Skills to be acquired in this tutorial:

To start learning how to symbolize sentences using predicate logic.

### The Tutorial:

To symbolize at predicate logic level, entities like Beryl are symbolized by constant terms which are lower case letters from the beginning of the alphabet ('b' would be fine for Beryl) and properties are symbolized by upper case letters ('W' would be fine for '..is wise'); and the two are put together by writing the property first followed by the individual it applies to. The result, using the conventions mentioned here, is

There are many valid arguments which cannot be shown to be valid using sentential logic alone. For example,

Beryl is a philosopher.

All philosophers are wise.

Therefore

Beryl is wise.

## Supplementary: The Paradoxes of Material Implication

1/24/06

The problem or issue here lies with the truth table for the conditional (or material implication) ⊃

## Review

There is the idea of setting up a code or convention or dictionary between atomic propositions and capital letters.

There are compound propositions, each of which has a main connective which connects its components.

There are five propositional logical connectives:

'∼' which translates back to 'it is not the case that...'

'&' which translates back to '... and ...'

'∨' which translates back to '... or ...'

'⊃' which translates back to 'if... then ...'

'≡' which translates back to '... if and only if ...'

## Help with Tutorial 2

8/29/06

### Tutorial 2 Example: How Experts Symbolize

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