Tutorial 22: Symbolizing Relations

Logical System

2013

Tutorial 22 Symbolizing Relations.

The Tutorial

Thus far we have considered only 'monadic' predicates-- our atomic formulas consist of a predicate followed by only one term-- for example, Fx. But in English we regularly encounter dyadic predicates or relations. For example, 'Arthur is taller than Bert' cannot be symbolized with the tools we have used so far; what is needed is a relation to represent '...is taller than ...' Txy, say, and then the proposition would be symbolized Tab.

 


 

Exercises to accompany Tutorial 22

Thus far the program has presented its conventions for

 

a = ARTHUR
b = BERYL
c = CHARLES
x = X
y = Y
z = Z
Sx = STUDIES
Tx = THINKS
Ax = ANGRY
Bx = BOLD
Cx = CHEERFUL
Nx = NINCOMPOOP
Px = PHILOSOPHER

but it also has conventions for transitive verbs, passive verbs, and binary adjectives. These are as follows

 

Axy = ANNOYS
Bxy = BRINGS
Dxy = DRIVEN BY
Exy = ENCOURAGED BY
Rxy = RUDER THAN
Sxy = SMARTER THAN

(you can also teach it transitive verbs, passive verbs,and binary adjectives by selecting one of

 

remember tverb (english-in-here) capital-in-here
remember pverb (english-in-here) capital-in-here
remember binadj (english-in-here) capital-in-here

and clicking Do Command; you will not need to teach the program anything for these exercises.)

Exercise 1 (of 4)

Exercise 2 (of 4)

Exercise 3 (of 4)

Help Video:

[This is a Video, click the Play button to view it..]

Exercise 4 (of 4)


If you decide to use the web application for the exercises you can launch it from here Deriver[Bergmann] — username 'logic' password 'logic'. Then either copy and paste the above formulas into the Journal or use the Deriver File Menu to Open Web Page with this address https://softoption.us/test/easyDeriver/CombinedExercisesEasyDBergmann.html . 

Preferences

You may need to set some Preferences for this.

  • you can check that the parser is set to bergmann.